The Inca Empire was the largest in pre-Columbian America, which is the name for the period of time before European influences became widespread in South America. The empire included part of Ecuador, Chile, Bolivia, Argentina, and Columbia, but the center was in modern day Cusco, Peru. At one time, the empire was divided into four regions whose corners met in Cusco. The Incas spoke Quechua, a native Peruvian dialect that is still spoken today. They had no written language, and therefore no written history. However, the Spanish conquistadors recorded their observations about Incan society when they arrived in Peru. The Spaniards were impressed with the Incas’ cities, and sent messages back to Spain describing their beauty. Although there are many unanswered questions about the history of the Incan empire, it is clear that it was a complex and organized society. Many festivals celebrated in modern day Peru are still inspired by Inca holidays and beliefs. Sometime in the early 20th century, a rainbow flag was created to show Inca pride in Peru.